Once children have mastered all of the skills in my previous blog Number Sense and the Number System then work needs to begin on teaching the following 4 number relationships:

- Spatial Relationships – children recognise patterns of objects without counting.
- One and two more, one and two less – children combine this knowledge to understand a number e.g. 5 is 1 more than 4 and 2 less than 7.
- Anchors of 5 and 10 – These numbers play a very important role in our number system and so it is important that children have a good understanding of these.
- Part-part-whole relationships – these are the most important relationships for children to understand.

During the beginning stages children will do a lot of counting to complete activities. As the above skills develop further children will rely on their counting skills less and less and use their knowledge of number relationships more and more.

## EYFS Maths – Spatial Relationships

The following activities will support children in recognising spatial relationships

- Board games which involve the use of a die.
- Games that use dominoes.
- Dot card activities.

There are also a number of interactive games that provide similar opportunities e.g. flash interactive

## EYFS Maths – One and two more, one and two less

This concept can be explored in a number of ways and with a number of materials.

In this pack there are two different base boards to use, either a train track or a tower where the princess rescues the prince from the tower. Children take it in turns to select an instruction card from the top of the pile. They follow the instructions according to what the card says e.g. ‘go to number 4’, ‘2 more’, ‘1 less’, etc. The first one to get to the end of the number line is the winner.

For those children that are ready, there are more and less worksheets for them to complete with a vertical number line down the side of the page to support in finding the answers.

Visit my teacherspayteachers store or my tes store for a copy of the pack.

## EYFS Maths – Anchoring Numbers to 5 and 10

Five frames and ten frames are an obvious choice of equipment for this particular concept. For more information on this visit my blog three free EYFS math’s activities to develop number sense. There you will find a wide range of 5 frame and 10 frame activities.

When filling in a ten frame with counters children should be encouraged to fill the top row from left to right first and then the bottom row afterwards. This allows them to see numbers greater than 5 as being made up of 5 plus some more. For example, 7 will be seen as 5 and 2 more. These number relationships will support children with other math’s concepts later on.

When children first start to use a ten frame they will remove counters in order to make a new number. For example, after displaying the number 4 on the ten frame they will then remove them to make the number 6. Eventually, as children’s understanding of number deepens they will recognise that they can simply add two more to the original 4 to make 6. This is a good way to assess children’s understanding and observe progress. However, it is important that children come to this realisation for themselves through their experiences and own learning rather than being told to do things a particular way. The teacher’s role is to question and draw children’s attention to patterns and relationships.

## EYFS Maths – Part-Part-Whole Relationships

This concept allows children to think more about the way in which a number is made up. Children should begin by working on the numbers 4 or 5 and then progress to 6 and beyond.

Children should begin by making numbers in two colours using different combinations of numbers. This could be done with interlocking cubes, counters, ten frames, dot strips or my cute tortoises below.

Once children have had lots of practical opportunities to explore part-part whole relationships they can then move on to more formal recording.

They then need to go on to write their own number sentences for the arrangements they make in order to draw their attention to the part-part-whole relationship.

As the children become more confident with the part-part-whole relationship they can begin to explore it in a different way and start looking for one of the missing parts when they have the information of one part and the whole.

Have you heard of ‘The Little Dots’? You can find lots more part-part whole activities with them.